The People's Republic of China is a country that exists in Southeast Asia. It is the third-largest country in terms of land, but it consists of the world's greatest population with roughly one billion people. Historically, China has been the subject of Western Influence for many centuries, and throughout most of its life was the subject to European Influence in the Opium Wars and other conflicts. China bolstered friendship near the end of the 20th Century, fighting against the Axis powers in the brutal Second World War. Though having fought alongside the United States through the Second World War, China fell under Communist rule at the conclusion of the Chinese Civil War, and henceforth served as a major ally of the Soviet Union, but that didn't last and soon became a nation that nobody wanted to be along side with.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China 2.25 million years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; they have been dated to between 680,000 and 780,000 years ago. The fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens (dated to 125,000–80,000 years ago) have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Dao County, Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, at Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800 to 5400 BCE, and Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE. Some scholars have suggested that the Jiahu symbols (7th millennium BCE) constituted the earliest Chinese writing system.
Early Dynastic Rule
According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE. The Xia dynasty marked the beginning of China's political system based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, which lasted for a millennium. The dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period. The succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE. Their oracle bone script (from c. 1500 BCE) represents the oldest form of Chinese writing yet found and is a direct ancestor of modern Chinese characters.
The Shang was conquered by the Zhou, who ruled between the 11th and 5th centuries BCE, though centralized authority was slowly eroded by feudal warlords. Some principalities eventually emerged from the weakened Zhou, no longer fully obeyed the Zhou king, and continually waged war with each other in the 300-year Spring and Autumn period. By the time of the Warring States period of the 5th–3rd centuries BCE, there were only seven powerful states left.
The Warring States period ended in 221 BCE after the state of Qin conquered the other six kingdoms, reunited China and established the dominant order of autocracy. King Zheng of Qin proclaimed himself the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty. He enacted Qin's legalist reforms throughout China, notably the forced standardization of Chinese characters, measurements, road widths (i.e., cart axles' length), and currency. His dynasty also conquered the Yue tribes in Guangxi, Guangdong, and Vietnam. The Qin dynasty lasted only fifteen years, falling soon after the First Emperor's death, as his harsh authoritarian policies led to widespread rebellion.
Following a widespread civil war during which the imperial library at Xianyang was burned, the Han dynasty emerged to rule China between 206 BCE and CE 220, creating a cultural identity among its populace still remembered in the ethnonym of the Han Chinese. The Han expanded the empire's territory considerably, with military campaigns reaching Central Asia, Mongolia, South Korea, and Yunnan, and the recovery of Guangdong and northern Vietnam from Nanyue. Han involvement in Central Asia and Sogdia helped establish the land route of the Silk Road, replacing the earlier path over the Himalayas to India. Han China gradually became the largest economy of the ancient world. Despite the Han's initial decentralization and the official abandonment of the Qin philosophy of Legalism in favor of Confucianism, Qin's legalist institutions and policies continued to be employed by the Han government and its successors.
After the end of the Han dynasty, a period of strife known as Three Kingdoms followed, whose central figures were later immortalized in one of the Four Classics of Chinese literature. At its end, Wei was swiftly overthrown by the Jin dynasty. The Jin fell to civil war upon the ascension of a developmentally disabled emperor; the Five Barbarians then invaded and ruled northern China as the Sixteen States. The Xianbei unified them as the Northern Wei, whose Emperor Xiaowen reversed his predecessors' apartheid policies and enforced a drastic sinification on his subjects, largely integrating them into Chinese culture. In the south, the general Liu Yu secured the abdication of the Jin in favor of the Liu Song. The various successors of these states became known as the Northern and Southern dynasties, with the two areas finally reunited by the Sui in 581. The Sui restored the Han to power through China, reformed its agriculture, economy and imperial examination system, constructed the Grand Canal, and patronized Buddhism. However, they fell quickly when their conscription for public works and a failed war in northern Korea provoked widespread unrest.
Under the succeeding Tang and Song dynasties, Chinese economy, technology, and culture entered a golden age. The Tang Empire retained control of the Western Regions and the Silk Road, which brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and the Horn of Africa, and made the capital Chang'an a cosmopolitan urban center. However, it was devastated and weakened by the An Lushan Rebellion in the 8th century. In 907, the Tang disintegrated completely when the local military governors became ungovernable. The Song dynasty ended the separatist situation in 960, leading to a balance of power between the Song and Khitan Liao. The Song was the first government in world history to issue paper money and the first Chinese polity to establish a permanent standing navy which was supported by the developed shipbuilding industry along with the sea trade.
Between the 10th and 11th centuries, the population of China doubled in size to around 100 million people, mostly because of the expansion of rice cultivation in central and southern China, and the production of abundant food surpluses. The Song dynasty also saw a revival of Confucianism, in response to the growth of Buddhism during the Tang, and a flourishing of philosophy and the arts, as landscape art and porcelain were brought to new levels of maturity and complexity. However, the military weakness of the Song army was observed by the Jurchen Jin dynasty. In 1127, Emperor Huizong of Song and the capital Bianjing were captured during the Jin–Song Wars. The remnants of the Song retreated to southern China.
The Mongol conquest of China began in 1205 with the gradual conquest of Western Xia by Genghis Khan, who also invaded Jin territories. In 1271, the Mongol leader Kublai Khan established the Yuan dynasty, which conquered the last remnant of the Song dynasty in 1279. Before the Mongol invasion, the population of Song China was 120 million citizens; this was reduced to 60 million by the time of the census in 1300. A peasant named Zhu Yuanzhang led a rebellion that overthrew the Yuan in 1368 and founded the Ming dynasty as the Hongwu Emperor. Under the Ming dynasty, China enjoyed another golden age, developing one of the strongest navies in the world and a rich and prosperous economy amid a flourishing of art and culture. It was during this period that admiral Zheng He led the Ming treasure voyages throughout the Indian Ocean, reaching as far as East Africa.
In the early years of the Ming dynasty, China's capital was moved from Nanjing to Beijing. With the budding of capitalism, philosophers such as Wang Yangming further critiqued and expanded Neo-Confucianism with concepts of individualism and equality of four occupations. The scholar-official stratum became a supporting force of industry and commerce in the tax boycott movements, which, together with the famines and defense against Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598) and Manchu invasions led to an exhausted treasury. In 1644, Beijing was captured by a coalition of peasant rebel forces led by Li Zicheng. The Chongzhen Emperor committed suicide when the city fell. The Manchu Qing dynasty, then allied with Ming dynasty general Wu Sangui, overthrew Li's short-lived Shun dynasty and subsequently seized control of Beijing, which became the new capital of the Qing dynasty.
The Qing dynasty, which lasted from 1644 until 1912, was the last imperial dynasty of China. Its conquest of the Ming (1618–1683) cost 25 million lives and the economy of China shrank drastically. After the Southern Ming ended, the further conquest of the Dzungar Khanate added Mongolia, Tibet and Xinjiang to the empire. The centralized autocracy was strengthened to suppress anti-Qing sentiment with the policy of valuing agriculture and restraining commerce, the Haijin ("sea ban"), and ideological control as represented by the literary inquisition, causing social and technological stagnation.
Fall of the Qing Dynasty
In the mid-19th century, the Qing dynasty experienced Western imperialism in the Opium Wars with Britain and France. China was forced to pay compensation, open treaty ports, allow extraterritoriality for foreign nationals, and cede Hong Kong to the British under the 1842 Treaty of Nanking, the first of the Unequal Treaties. The First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895) resulted in Qing China's loss of influence in the Korean Peninsula, as well as the cession of Taiwan to Japan. The Qing dynasty also began experiencing internal unrest in which tens of millions of people died, especially in the White Lotus Rebellion, the failed Taiping Rebellion that ravaged southern China in the 1850s and 1860s and the Dungan Revolt (1862–1877) in the northwest. The initial success of the Self-Strengthening Movement of the 1860s was frustrated by a series of military defeats in the 1880s and 1890s.
In the 19th century, the great Chinese diaspora began. Losses due to emigration were added to by conflicts and catastrophes such as the Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–1879, in which between 9 and 13 million people died. The Guangxu Emperor drafted a reform plan in 1898 to establish a modern constitutional monarchy, but these plans were thwarted by the Empress Dowager Cixi. The ill-fated anti-foreign Boxer Rebellion of 1899–1901 further weakened the dynasty. Although Cixi sponsored a program of reforms, the Xinhai Revolution of 1911–1912 brought an end to the Qing dynasty and established the Republic of China. Puyi, the last Emperor of China, abdicated in 1912
Establishment of the Republic and World War II
On 1 January 1912, the Republic of China was established, and Sun Yat-sen of the Kuomintang (the KMT or Nationalist Party) was proclaimed provisional president. On 12 February 1912, regent Empress Dowager Longyu sealed the imperial abdication decree on behalf of 4 year old Puyi, the last emperor of China, ending 5,000 years of monarchy in China. In March 1912, the presidency was given to Yuan Shikai, a former Qing general who in 1915 proclaimed himself Emperor of China. In the face of popular condemnation and opposition from his own Beiyang Army, he was forced to abdicate and re-establish the republic in 1916.
After Yuan Shikai's death in 1916, China was politically fragmented. Its Beijing-based government was internationally recognized but virtually powerless; regional warlords controlled most of its territory. In the late 1920s, the Kuomintang under Chiang Kai-shek, the then Principal of the Republic of China Military Academy, was able to reunify the country under its own control with a series of deft military and political maneuverings, known collectively as the Northern Expedition. The Kuomintang moved the nation's capital to Nanjing and implemented "political tutelage", an intermediate stage of political development outlined in Sun Yat-sen's San-min program for transforming China into a modern democratic state. The political division in China made it difficult for Chiang to battle the communist-led People's Liberation Army (PLA), against whom the Kuomintang had been warring since 1927 in the Chinese Civil War. This war continued successfully for the Kuomintang, especially after the PLA retreated in the Long March, until Japanese aggression and the 1936 Xi'an Incident forced Chiang to confront Imperial Japan.
The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), a theater of World War II, forced an uneasy alliance between the Kuomintang and the Communists. Japanese forces committed numerous war atrocities against the civilian population; in all, as many as 20 million Chinese civilians died. An estimated 40,000 to 300,000 Chinese were massacred in the city of Nanjing alone during the Japanese occupation. During the war, China, along with the UK, the United States, and the Soviet Union, were referred to as "trusteeship of the powerful" and were recognized as the Allied "Big Four" in the Declaration by United Nations. Along with the other three great powers, China was one of the four major Allies of World War II, and was later considered one of the primary victors in the war. After the surrender of Japan in 1945, Taiwan, including the Pescadores, was returned to Chinese control. China emerged victorious but war-ravaged and financially drained. The continued distrust between the Kuomintang and the Communists led to the resumption of civil war. Constitutional rule was established in 1947, but because of the ongoing unrest, many provisions of the ROC constitution were never implemented in mainland China
Civil War and the People's Republic
Major combat in the Chinese Civil War ended in 1949 with the CCP gain control of most of mainland China, and the Kuomintang retreating offshore to Taiwan, reducing its territory to only Taiwan, Hainan, and their surrounding islands. On 1 October 1949, CCP Chairman Mao Zedong formally proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of China at the new nation's founding ceremony and inaugural military parade in Tiananmen Square, Beijing. In 1950, the People's Liberation Army captured Hainan from the ROC and incorporated Tibet. However, remaining Kuomintang forces continued to wage an insurgency in western China throughout the 1950s.
The government consolidated its popularity among the peasants through land reform, which included the execution of between 1 and 2 million landlords. China developed an independent industrial system and its own nuclear weapons. The Chinese population increased from 550 million in 1950 to 900 million in 1974. However, the Great Leap Forward, an idealistic massive reform project, resulted in an estimated 15 to 35 million deaths between 1958 and 1961, mostly from starvation. In 1966, Mao and his allies launched the Cultural Revolution, sparking a decade of political recrimination and social upheaval that lasted until Mao's death in 1976. In October 1971, the PRC replaced the Republic of China in the United Nations, and took its seat as a permanent member of the Security Council.
Reforms and contemporary history
After Mao's death, the Gang of Four was quickly arrested by Hua Guofeng and held responsible for the excesses of the Cultural Revolution. Elder Deng Xiaoping took power in 1978, and instituted significant economic reforms. The CCP loosened governmental control over citizens' personal lives, and the communes were gradually disbanded in favor of working contracted to households. This marked China's transition from a planned economy to a mixed economy with an increasingly open-market environment. China adopted its current constitution on 4 December 1982. In 1989, the suppression of student protests in Tiananmen Square brought condemnations and sanctions against the Chinese government from various foreign countries.
Jiang Zemin, Li Peng and Zhu Rongji led the nation in the 1990s. Under their administration, China's economic performance pulled an estimated[by whom?] 150 million peasants out of poverty and sustained an average annual gross domestic product growth rate of 11.2%.[better source needed] British Hong Kong and Portuguese Macau returned to China in 1997 and 1999, respectively, as the Hong Kong and Macau special administrative regions under the principle of One Country, Two Systems. The country joined the World Trade Organization in 2001, and maintained its high rate of economic growth under Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao's leadership in the 2000s. However, the growth also severely impacted the country's resources and environment, and caused major social displacement.
Chinese Communist Party general secretary Xi Jinping has ruled since 2012 and has pursued large-scale efforts to reform China's economy (which has suffered from structural instabilities and slowing growth), and has also reformed the one-child policy and penal system, as well as instituting a vast anti corruption crackdown. In 2013, China initiated the Belt and Road Initiative, a global infrastructure investment project.
The Great Titan War
In the year 2022, the Peoples Republic of China joined the Great Titan War on the side of the Russian Federation. Allying there economies with North Korea, Laos, and Cambodia, the Peoples Republic of China began an invasion of Southeast Asia, attacking Japan, South Korea, Vietnam, the Philippines, and India. However, due to the Chinese entry into the war against the United States, the PRC began to find itself under massive economic pressure as they were now at war with there biggest trading partner. This complicated matters both internally and externally, as it put China firmly one side of a great global conflict.
In 2023, the Peoples Republic of China took part in the Invasion of the United States along with Russia and multiple other nations. The problem was that the Peoples Republic of China and the Russian Federation had found themselves in a bit of contention on what the actual goal of the invasion was. The Chinese wanted to force the United States to the negotiating table and sign peace as to restore trade and economic power. The Chinese also wanted to do as little damage as possible as the aim was to establish occupation, not destruction. The Russians on the other hand wanted to push complete and total destruction of the United States and place the country and its population under military rule. These disagreements between them would ultimately lead to a point of contention when the United States eventually decided to counterattack.
Invasion of China
On July 4th, 2026, the United States did a reverse move, and launched an invasion of the Peoples Republic of China. The United States Army attacked the Chinese cities of Shantou, Nanjing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, and many other points along the Chinese coastline. The United States Military was able to breach the defenses the Chinese had put in place by using unconventional warfare tactics. As a result, the Americans landed into mainland China. However, the invasion of mainland China would not be the easy fight the Americans had hoped for.
From November 9th, 2026 to April 7th, 2027, the United States Military and the Chinese Peoples Liberation Army fought on Chinese Soil. The front stabilized, and it went from a campaign of rapid dominance into a stalemate even worse. The Russians were unable to provide much in terms of resources as they were dealing with counteroffensives in Europe and the Middle East. Pakistan had all but surrendered, and India was currently giving the much needed supplies to the United States to allow for Invasion.
In November 2027, the United States and European Coalition Governments met with the Russian and Chinese Governments behind closed doors to discuss peace between there two sides of the war. The Peoples Republic of China demanded that the United States withdraw all of its forces from mainland China in return for renewed economic trade. The Chinese also demanded however that they be given Laos, Cambodia, and Mongolia as its territory. The Americans reluctantly agreed to these terms, and on November 11th, 2027 a ceasefire between the two sides was officially signed.
The Great Collapse
Following the end of the The Great Titan War, the United States, European Coalition, Russian Federation, and the Peoples Republic of China found themselves in a bit of a huge mess. The European Coalition was in the best shape out of each of the world powers, and promised to send mutual economic and humanitarian aid to the USA, Russia, and China. In reality though, what the European Coalition had really done is exploit loopholes within the United Nations and managed to effectively take over and occupy the United States, Russia, and the Peoples Republic of China. The Chinese as a result suffered a near 40% loss in manufacturing output, and soon the standards of living dropped considerably within the country.
In 2036, the South African Republic and the United Arab Emirates completely collapsed. These two nations were both allies and partial members to the European Coalition, and when they collapsed, the European Coalition economy entered a severe economic recession. This recession, in what became known as The Great Collapse hit the world with a jolt as the track to superpower status was now open to unlikely possibilities. In 2039, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile united into a new nation, the Federation of the Americas. Realizing the sense of opportunity, the Peoples Republic of China officially recognized the new country, and began trading with the new nation. However, as the Federation became a stronger power, the Chinese had essentially outsourced there industrial complex to the Federation.
War of 2042
When the War of 2042 broke out in Russia and in Saudi Arabia, the Peoples Republic of China sought to capitalize off of Russia and the Middle Easts Misery during the conflict. The Peoples Republic of China cooperated with the United Nations against the Red Banner Rebellion in Russia, and the Peoples Liberation and Resistance in Saudi Arabia. The Western Powers thanked the PRC for there efforts in helping them out in the war, and as a result the West once again began to reopen negotiations for trade and other things.
Despite this economic partnership with the Federation, China continued to become economically weakened. In 2043, the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea collapsed into open anarchy and civil war. The resulting war, known as the "Korean Crisis" saw the unification of the Korean Peninsula under a new government and new constitution, and new flag, known as the United Korean Republic. Almost instantly, a new superpower was born, and it was right on China's doorstep. Even with the addition of Mongolia, Laos, and Cambodia into the Peoples Republic of China, the PRC was still suffering. China's export market was still 15% less than it was before the outbreak of the Great Titan War and its manufacturing industry was virtually not in the toilet like the former world superpowers.
In the 2050s, for the first time, workers in China in facilities near Beijing clashed with authorities in a workers strike, with one dead and fifty injured. The protest came after a wave of layoffs due to the falling demand for Chinese-made goods. This in turn caused China's unemployment and poverty rate to skyrocket. With China's primary market for exports has changing in just a matter of a few short years, it became evident that consumers in the United States, Europe, and Asia no longer seemed interested in purchasing luxury goods from labels like a Gucci and Louis Vuitton. Even mainstays like personal electronic devices have saw dips in sales. Evidently, the trend to continued as the Federation continued to increase its presence as the new world power.
By 2055, China's prestige and influence further diminished, likely further exacerbated by the largely unsuccessful attempts by the international community to resolve the subsequent European-Iranian War that severely disrupted the global energy supplies even further disrupted the faltering world economy. Because of this, China focused its attention on investing into the Federation of the Americas, which now had the largest economy in the Western Hemisphere. In return, the Federation began expanding its image to impoverished nations in Africa and the Middle East. Despite the Americans indirect role in China's own economic woes, China was among the few nations that was actively praised by the Federation of the Americas. The Federation's policy of maintaining alliances with both China and the United States is what further tarnished its image with the United States Government.
In the year 2060, the SPIRE Corporation (the largest corporate entity to exist in human history and possessing the largest standing army in the world thanks to the crises that had engulfed the world over the passed many years since the end of the Dominion War) unofficially declared war against the world. SPIRE Corporation began there initial offensives by attacking the Chinese Rival, the United States of America, as well as directly striking out against the Peoples Republic of China. By overthrowing the governments in Thailand and Burma and concentrating there firepower, SPIRE Corporation was able to attack the Chinese in many places such as Guangzhou, Amoy, Fuzhou, Ningbo, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Haikou, and Nanning.
The Chinese were caught near completely by surprise by the initial SPIRE Corporation offensives. The Chinese had fortified there outgoing borders to prevent a foreign invasion, but this invasion was from an enemy within, and as a result the Peoples Liberation Army found itself being forced to retreat from its coastline once again. For the first time, the United States, the European Federation, Russian Federation, Peoples Republic of China, Federation of the Americas, Japan, and United Korean Republic had found themselves on the same side of great global conflict. For the sake of the greater good, these nations temporarily signed there armies to become the largest United Nations Peacekeeping Force in the history of the United Nations.
In the Southeast Asian Theatre of the War against SPIRE Corporation, the Peoples Liberation Army found themselves fighting alongside soldiers from hundreds of other countries. However, SPIRE Corporation's entrenchments turned the Southeast Asian Theatre from a campaign of dominance, to a stalemate. The PLA though alongside there "brothers" from the United Nations took part in the recapture of major Chinese cities in the near final year of the PMC War. PLA Soldiers also took part in the fighting across Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, and in Thailand before the surrender of the SPIRE Corporation.
In 2075, after years of growing tension between the Federation of the Americas and the United States, cultivated in the American Invasion of Caracas and Northern Brazil, which was successfully repelled by the Federation. With the US seemingly going on the offensive, the Peoples Republic of China ultimately aligned themselves with the Federation of the Americas. In 2079-2080, the Peoples Republic of China ultimately joined the war against the United States of America.
The Chinese (Even though they had just assisted these countries years before), attacked in near the same fashion as the ill-fated Great Titan War. The Chinese once again attacked Vietnam, Korea, Burma, Thailand, and India, allying themselves with Pakistan and began attacking India once again. The problem was, the Peoples Republic of China had barely recovered from that of the PMC Wars only a few years earlier, and when they decided to attack, they found themselves severely behind on war production quotas. Thus, they were severely reliant on constant trade and supply from the Federation.
In 2083, after the United States began a counterattack against the Federation during the North American Theatre, the Federation made a desperate cry for help as not to lose everything. The Chinese eventually relented, and began sending reinforcements to the United States to aid the Federation of the Americas. The plan was to land in occupied San Diego (still Federation Territory), where the Chinese would then meet there Federation counterparts and began a new offensive. The problem was was that the Chinese navy was mostly consisting of ships that dated back to the Dominion War, and the ships that met standards were ships that they were not properly trained on.
In 2084, when the Chinese Invasion Fleet the Americans at the battle of Hawaii, the Chinese found themselves horribly impeded by the UNSC combined navy. The Battle of Hawaii lasted for a total of almost three days, and was the largest naval battle in history up to that point in time. By the time it was done, the Chinese Navy was forced to retreat and the UNSC had won. Although the Chinese were still able to get reinforcements to the Federation of the Americas by air, it was comparative to the once grand Chinese Navy. Now, the United States had set its sights once again on mainland China.
In 2084, the PRC got a stunning piece of news, when they learned that the Russian Federation (An ally of there's) entered the war, on the side of the United States. This came after the execution of the Russian Envoy to the Federation by Federation Soldiers in occupied Europe. As a result, Russia entered the war on the side of the United States by launching an offensive into occupied Europe. To deny the United States critical resources, the Federation ordered that the Peoples Republic of China attack there former ally.
The Chinese reluctantly relented to Federation demands. In fall 2085, the Peoples Liberation Army of China attacked the Russian City of Vladivostok, as well as attacking and sinking two Russian oil drilling rigs in the Pacific. The Russians were near stunned by the attack, but the Chinese had made the dumb decision of attacking in frontal assaults. The hope of the Peoples Liberation Army was to not only seize outer Manchuria, but Vladivostok and Mongolia in the process. The problem was however, once again, the Federation was too occupied with the European and North American fronts, that the Chinese had found themselves fighting on there own.
In 2086, the Chinese offensive into Russia was turned back. After the liberation of Europe campaign, the Russians with supplies and aid coming to them from the United States decided to attack the Chinese province of Xinjiang, all in the meanwhile assisting the United Korean Republic in repelling the Chinese invasion. The Russian's fierce fighting, coupled with the fact they were betrayed by there allies, ultimately is what drove there will to drive the Chinese out. As the Russians pushed further and further inland, the UNSC began a campaign in the Southeast of Asia to liberate the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, and parts of Indonesia from Chinese rule. The Chinese found themselves fighting a war on two fronts, and decided they were gonna go down to the death.
In the aftermath of the Federation War, and the defeat and dismantlement of the Federation of the Americas, the Peoples Republic of China had found themselves in an awkward position. They were essentially surrounded on all sides, and there most vital ally had completely capitulated. In August of 2087, officials of the Peoples Republic of China and the United Nations Security Command met in Washington D.C to discuss peace between there two sides. This was the second war that the United States had to endure against the PRC, and this time they came down with harsh terms. As per the peace treaty, the PRC had to withdraw from its occupied territories, including Mongolia and Vietnam. The Chinese also had to endure Manchuria, Inner Mongolia, and the Xinjiang Province under UNSC Military occupation for 10 years. The Chinese, being in no position to negotiate, signed the humiliating peace terms.
The Chinese constitution states that The People's Republic of China "is a socialist state governed by a people’s democratic dictatorship that is led by the working class and based on an alliance of workers and peasants," and that the state institutions "shall practice the principle of democratic centralism." The PRC is one of the world's only socialist states governed by a communist party. The Chinese government has been variously described as communist and socialist, but also as authoritarian and corporatist, with heavy restrictions in many areas, most notably against free access to the Internet, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, the right to have children, free formation of social organizations and freedom of religion. Its current political, ideological and economic system has been termed by its leaders as a "consultative democracy" "people's democratic dictatorship", "socialism with Chinese characteristics" (which is Marxism adapted to Chinese circumstances) and the "socialist market economy" respectively
Since 2018, the main body of the Chinese constitution declares that "the defining feature of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP)." The 2018 amendments constitutionalized the de facto one-party state status of China, wherein the CCP General Secretary (party leader) holds ultimate power and authority over state and government and serves as the informal Paramount leader. The current General Secretary is Xi Jinping, who took office on 15 November 2012, and was re-elected on 25 October 2017. The electoral system is pyramidal. Local People's Congresses are directly elected, and higher levels of People's Congresses up to the National People's Congress (NPC) are indirectly elected by the People's Congress of the level immediately below.
Another eight political parties, have representatives in the NPC and the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC). China supports the Leninist principle of "democratic centralism", but critics describe the elected National People's Congress as a "rubber stamp" body. Since both the CCP and the People's Liberation Army (PLA) promote according to seniority, it is possible to discern distinct generations of Chinese leadership. In official discourse, each group of leadership is identified with a distinct extension of the ideology of the party. Historians have studied various periods in the development of the government of the People's Republic of China by reference to these "generations".
China is a one-party state led by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The National People's Congress in 2018 altered the country's constitution to remove the two-term limit on holding the Presidency of China, permitting the current leader, Xi Jinping, to remain president of China (and General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party) for an unlimited time, earning criticism for creating dictatorial governance. The President is the titular head of state, elected by the National People's Congress. The Premier is the head of government, presiding over the State Council composed of four vice premiers and the heads of ministries and commissions. The incumbent president is Xi Jinping, who is also the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party and the Chairman of the Central Military Commission, making him China's paramount leader. The incumbent premier is Li Keqiang, who is also a senior member of the CCP Politburo Standing Committee, China's de facto top decision-making body.
In 2017, Xi called on the communist party to further tighten its grip on the country, to uphold the unity of the party leadership, and achieve the "Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation". Political concerns in China include the growing gap between rich and poor and government corruption. Nonetheless, the level of public support for the government and its management of the nation is high, with 80–95% of Chinese citizens expressing satisfaction with the central government, according to a 2011 survey. A 2020 survey from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research also found that 75% of Chinese were satisfied with the government on information dissemination amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, while 67% were satisfied with its delivery of daily necessities.
The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the main military force behind the Peoples Republic of China. At one point, the Peoples Liberation Army had at least 3 Million active personnel, making it once the largest standing military force in the world, commanded by the Central Military Commission (CMC). China has the second-biggest military reserve force. The PLA consists of the Ground Force (PLAGF), the Navy (PLAN), the Air Force (PLAAF), the Rocket Force (PLARF) and the Strategic Support Force (PLASSF). According to the Chinese government, military budget for 2017 totaled US$151.5 billion, constituting the world's second-largest military budget, although the military expenditures-GDP ratio with 1.3% of GDP is below world average. However, many authorities – including SIPRI and the U.S. Office of the Secretary of Defense claim that China hides its real level of military spending, which is allegedly much higher than the official budget. China boasted at one point the world's third-most powerful military, with the world's third-largest stockpile of nuclear weapons.
Due to the economic and political decline of the Peoples Republic of China, and especially after the Dominion War, the Peoples Liberation Army had found itself severely weakened by internal and external affairs. In the post war world, the Peoples Liberation Army's highest personnel count was 1.8 Million Active Personal. Its Military budget had been severely reduced by nearly 50% from before the Dominion War. While conscription is still apart of the Peoples Liberation Army, most of the conscripted soldiers are reserved as there was not enough supply needed to demand an army from before the Dominion War.
Since the unification of China, Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand, the Peoples Republic of China is a modernized military after having replaced and scrapped most of its post Dominion War era ordnance and upgrading the Army's training in an accelerated program. The military is commonly armed with Federation made weapons and vehicles, resulting from the outsourcing of the Chinese economy to the Federation. The military, is also utilizing advanced weapons purchased from Russian as well as home made equipment from before and after the Dominion War.
Despite the Peoples Republic of China having a large army, its economy is miniscule. Before Russo-American War, China's economy was extremely well managed and was experiencing economic growth due to political squabbles. Because of the Russo-American War, the Great Collapse, the Delhi Cough, and the European-Iranian War, the Peoples Republic of China suffered the same issues with the United States, the European Coalition, and Russia with declining overseas trade, poor spending, and other factors that lead to the PRC being downgraded from a superpower.
Upon the annexation Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand, and the economic partnerships with the Federation, the PRC economy expanded slowly. Chinas massive conglomerates there Southeast Asian Competitors. This gave them larger work forces, new ideas, and part of the market share in the global economy. The PRC's alliance with the Federation in South America excelled development in Asia and allowed the PRC to once again start regaining law and order.
The Peoples Republic of China may call itself a Communist State, however there are many factors that question that if this is really the case. Under Chinese President Mao Yanhai's reforms, the Peoples Republic of China increasingly allowed Public and Private Industry inside the territory of the PRC. In addition to these reforms, the Chinese instead of having an upper class and a lower class had decided to create the new "Education Middle Class" to create marks of distinction between the upper elite and the poor class. The Middle Class elite is the predominant available working class inside the Peoples Republic of China.
One of the other biggest resources of the Chinese Economy was from the Federation Occupied regions of the United States and North America. The importation of the vast resources of the occupied region such as coal, grain, potash, lumber, fresh water, and even Human Labor to work in Chinese Factories ultimately helped the Peoples Republic of China in there wartime economy. During the course of the occupation, several companies of the PRC assisted in the occupation of the U.S. Ready Electronics imported the C4 used to attack American cities' transportation systems. The PRC's oil companies imported equipment to drill for shale oil in the Rocky Mountains.
After the complete capitulation of the Federation of the Americas, the Peoples Republic of China's economic growth had hit near rock bottom, as trade with South America had near completely dried up. At the negotiating table, the Peoples Republic of China desperately didn't want the United Nations Security Command to put economic sanctions against China as that would cause a humanitarian disaster. The UNSC relented, and picked up where the Federation left off and began trading Chinese goods. Although the Chinese Economy is stable, its economy is stagnating.
As of the year 2100, the UNSC ended its occupation of Manchuria and Xinjiang, and Laos and Cambodia are still members of the Peoples Republic of China. The PRC has become a vital contributor and member of the United Nations Security Command. After the fall of the Federation, the old United Nations Security Council was disavowed permanently and replaced with a new United Nations Security Council, this time one that had governing authority and economic powers. The Peoples Republic of China undertook in the prosecution of Federation Leaders alongside that of the nations that it once was at war with, and has begun the process of forgetting that the Federation of the Americas has even existed.
Given the humanitarian, economic, and political relief efforts that were being needed for the reconstruction era after the Federation War, the Peoples Republic of China has become a more centralized Authoritarian State, as the Chinese Communist Party has been trying to suppress any kind of culture that related themselves to the former Federation. However, in an interesting turn of events, the Peoples Republic of China has become more capitalist than it ever has, as it has allowed for the most private and foreign investments away from government interference throughout its long history. This probably comes from having the largest population out of any country in the world, and the demand for labor after the war had increased significantly.
Although the Peoples Republic of China still seems to be in great shape, many wonder what the future holds. The Federation War had destroyed wildlife, ecosystems, and even entire countries. The effects of this are becoming somewhat of a hassle as dust storms, electromagnetic storms, acid rain, and other weather patterns sweep around the Earth. It has been said that the Chinese Communist Party may start abandoning communism all together at the rate they are going, but that is just speculation.