The Alcor Life Extension Foundation is a Scottsdale, Arizona, USA-based nonprofit company that researches, advocates for and performs cryonics, the preservation of humans in liquid nitrogen after legal death, with hopes of restoring them to full health when new technology is developed in the future.
Alcor accepts anatomical donations (cryonics cases) under the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act and Arizona Anatomical Gift Act for research purposes, reinforced by a court case in its favor that affirmed a constitutional right to engage in cryopreservation and donate one's body for the purpose. A form of the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act has been passed in all 50 states.
Table of Contents
The largest cryonics organization today, in terms of membership, was established as a nonprofit organization by Fred and Linda Chamberlain in California in 1972 as the Alcor Society for Solid State Hypothermia (ALCOR). Alcor was named after a faint star in the Big Dipper. The name was changed to Alcor Life Extension Foundation in 1977. The organization was conceived as a rational, technology-oriented cryonics organization that would be managed on a fiscally conservative basis. Alcor advertised in direct mailings and offered seminars in order to attract members and bring attention to the cryonics movement. The first of these seminars attracted 30 people.
On July 16, 1976, Alcor performed its first human cryopreservation on Fred Chamberlain's father. That same year, research in cryonics began with initial funding provided by the Manrise Corporation. At that time, Alcor’s office consisted of a mobile surgical unit in a large van. Trans Time, Inc., a cryonics organization in the San Francisco Bay area, provided initial preservation procedures and long-term patient storage until Alcor began doing its own storage in 1982.
In 1977, articles of incorporation were filed in Indianapolis by the Institute for Advanced Biological Studies (IABS) and Soma, Inc. IABS was a nonprofit research startup led by a young cryonics enthusiast named Steve Bridge, while Soma was intended as a for-profit organization to provide cryopreservation and human storage services. Its president, Mike Darwin, subsequently became a president of Alcor. Bridge filled the same position many years later. IABS and Soma relocated to California in 1981. Soma was disbanded, while IABS merged with Alcor in 1982.
In 1978, Cryovita Laboratories was founded by Jerry Leaf, who had been teaching surgery at UCLA. Cryovita was a for-profit organization which provided cryopreservation and transport services for Alcor in the 1980s until Leaf's death, at which time Alcor began providing these services on its own. Leaf and Michael Darwin collaborated to bring the first cryonics patient, Dr. James Bedford, who was preserved in 1967, to Alcor's California facility in 1982.
During this time, Leaf also collaborated with Michael Darwin in a series of hypothermia experiments in which dogs were resuscitated with no measurable neurological deficit after hours in deep hypothermia, just a few degrees above zero Celsius. The blood substitute which was developed for these experiments became the basis for the washout solution used at Alcor. Together, Leaf and Darwin developed a standby-transport model for human cryonics cases with the goal of intervening immediately after cardiac arrest and minimizing ischemic injury. Leaf was cryopreserved by Alcor in 1991; since 1992, Alcor has provided its own cryopreservation as well as patient-storage services. Today, Alcor is the only full-service cryonics organization that performs remote standbys.
Alcor grew slowly in its early years. In 1984, it merged with the Cryonics Society of South Florida. Alcor counted only 50 members in 1985, which was the year it cryopreserved its third patient. However, during this time researchers associated with Alcor contributed some of the most important techniques related to cryopreservation, eventually leading to today's method of vitrification.
Increasing growth in membership during this period is partially attributed to the 1986 publication of Eric Drexler's Engines of Creation, which debuted the idea of nanotechnology and contained a chapter on cryonics. In 1986, a group of Alcor members formed Symbex, a small investment company which funded a building in Riverside, California, for lease by Alcor. Alcor moved from Fullerton, California, to the new building in Riverside in 1987; Timothy Leary appeared at the grand opening. Alcor cryopreserved a member’s companion animal in 1986, and two people in 1987. Three human cases were handled in 1988, including the first whole body patient of Alcor's, and one in 1989. At that time, Alcor owned 20% interest in Symbex, with a goal of 51% ownership. In September 1988, Leary announced that he had signed up with Alcor, becoming the first celebrity to become an Alcor member. Leary later switched to a different cryonics organization, CryoCare, and then changed his mind altogether. Alcor's Vice-President, Director, head of suspension team and chief surgeon, Jerry Leaf, died suddenly of a heart attack in 1991.
By 1990, Alcor had grown to 300 members and outgrown its California headquarters, which was the largest cryonics facility in the world. The organization wanted to remain in Riverside County, but in response to concerns that the California facility was also vulnerable to earthquake risk, the organization purchased a building in Scottsdale, Arizona in 1993 and moved its patients to it in 1994.
In 2001, Alcor adapted cryoprotectant formulas from published scientific literature into a more concentrated formula capable of achieving ice-free preservation (vitrification) of the human brain (neurovitrification). In 2005, the vitrification process was applied to the first whole-body subject (as opposed to brain-only). This resulted in vitrification of the brain and conventional cryopreservation of the rest of the body. Work is continuing towards achieving whole-body vitrification, which is limited by the ability to fully circulate the cryoprotectant throughout the body. The vitrification used since 2000 was switched to what Alcor said was a superior solution in 2005. Canadian businessman Robert Miller, founder of Future Electronics, has provided research funding to Alcor in the past.
Policies and procedures
Alcor is governed by a self-perpetuating board of directors. Alcor's Scientific Advisory Board currently consists of Antonei Csoka, Aubrey de Grey, Robert Freitas, Bart Kosko, James B. Lewis, Ralph Merkle, Marvin Minsky, Martine Rothblatt, and Michael D. West. Alcor also maintains a medical advisory board consisting of medical doctors.
Most Alcor patients fund the procedure through life insurance policies which name Alcor as the beneficiary. Members who have signed up wear medical alert bracelets informing hospitals and doctors to notify Alcor in case of any emergency; in the case of a person who is known to be near death, Alcor can send a team for remote standby.
In some states, members can sign certificates stating that they wish to decline an autopsy. The cutting of the body organs (especially the brain) and blood vessels required for an autopsy makes it difficult to either preserve the body, especially the brain, without damage or perfuse the body with glycerol. The optimum preservation procedure begins less than one hour after death. Members can specify whether they wish Alcor to attempt to preserve even if an autopsy occurs, or whether they wish to be buried or cremated if an autopsy renders little hope for preservation.
In cases with remote standby, cardiopulmonary support is begun as soon as a patient is declared legally dead. Some patients were not able to receive cardiopulmonary support immediately, but in deference to the possibilities of future technology, these patients have also been preserved with the best techniques available. Alcor has a network of paramedics nationwide and seven surgeons, located in different regions, who are on call 24 hours a day. If an Alcor patient is met by a standby team (usually at a hospital, hospice, or home), the team will perform CPR to maintain blood flow to the brain and organs while simultaneously pumping an organ preservation solution through the veins.
Patients are transported as quickly as possible to Alcor headquarters in Scottsdale, where they undergo final preparations in Alcor's cardiopulmonary bypass lab. Plans are underway for a second operating room to be built. In the Patient Care Bay, patients are monitored by computer sensors while kept in liquid nitrogen in dewars. Liquid nitrogen is refilled on a weekly basis and does not need electricity to operate. Riverside County, California deputy coroner Dan Cupido said that Alcor had better equipment than some medical facilities.
Membership dues cover one-third of Alcor's yearly budget, with donations covering the rest. Alcor receives $50,000 each year from television royalties donated by a sitcom writer and producer who is in suspension. In 1997, after a substantial effort led by then-president Steve Bridge, Alcor formed the Patient Care Trust as an entirely separate entity to manage and protect the funding for cryopatients, including owning the building. Alcor remains the only cryonics organization to segregate and protect patient funding in this way; the 2% annual growth of the Trust is enough for upkeep of the patients. At least $70,000 of the money received for each full-body patient goes into this trust for future patient care, $17,000 for a neuropatient. Alcor is currently working to create an Alcor Model Trust, which would make it easier for members to establish their own Trusts to preserve their assets following legal death and prior to being revived from cryopreservation. Some members have already taken steps to do this on their own. Members can also store possessions deep underground in a Kansas salt mine operated by Underground Vaults & Storage, Inc.
Further information about Alcor policies and procedures is available from their FAQs.
Members suspended include Dick Clair, an Emmy Award-winning television sitcom writer and producer, Hall of Fame baseball legend Ted Williams and his son John Henry Williams, and futurist FM-2030. Current members of Alcor include nanotechnology pioneer Eric Drexler, Internet pioneer Ralph Merkle, engineer Keith Henson and his family, MIT professor Marvin Minsky, aging researcher Aubrey de Grey, mathemetician Edward O. Thorp, computer security CEO Kenneth Weiss, casino owner Don Laughlin, inventor Ray Kurzweil, film director Charles Matthau, futurists Max More and Natasha Vita-More, and entrepreneurs Saul Kent, Luke Nosek, Jonathan Despres and Future Electronics founder Robert Miller. Magazine publisher Althea Flynt was signed up to Alcor, but her body was not able to be preserved after her death, which required an autopsy. One Alcor member died in the World Trade Center in the September 11 attacks.
Membership has grown at a rate of about eight percent a year since Alcor's inception, tripling between 1987 and 1990. The oldest patient at Alcor is a 101-year-old woman, and the youngest is a 21-year-old woman. Alcor has had patients from as far as Australia. One in four of its members resides in the San Francisco Bay Area.
Before the company moved to Arizona from Riverside, California in 1994, it became a center of controversy when a county coroner ruled that Alcor client Dora Kent (Alcor board member Saul Kent's mother) was murdered with barbiturates before her head was removed for neuropreservation by the company's staff. Alcor contended that the drug was administered after her death. No charges were ever filed; former Riverside County deputy coroner Alan Kunzman later claimed that this was due to mistakes and poor decision-making by others in his office.
A judge ruled that Kent was already deceased at the time of preservation, and no foul play was involved. Alcor sued the county for false arrest and illegal seizure and won both suits. The incident is credited with spurring a growth in membership for Alcor due to the resultant publicity.
In 2002, Alcor drew considerable attention when baseball star Ted Williams was placed in cryonic suspension; although Alcor maintains privacy of its patients if they wish and did not disclose that Williams was at the Scottsdale facility, the situation came to light in court documents that grew out of an extended family dispute over Williams' wishes in regard to his remains. While Williams' children Claudia and John Henry contended that Williams wished to be preserved at Alcor, their half-sister and oldest Williams child Bobby-Jo Ferrell contested that her father wished to be cremated. Williams' attorney produced a note signed by Williams, John Henry, and Claudia saying: "JHW, Claudia and Dad all agree to be put into biostasis after we die. This is what we want, to be able to be together in the future, even if it is only a chance." John Henry later said, "He was very into science and believed in new technology and human advancement and was a pioneer. Even though things seemed impossible at times, he always knew there was always a chance to catch a fish -- only if you had your fly in the water."
In 2003, Sports Illustrated published allegations by former Alcor COO Larry Johnson that the company had mishandled Williams' head by drilling holes and accidentally cracking it. Johnson also claimed that some of Williams' DNA was missing; the article alleges that Williams' son, John Henry Williams, desired to sell some of his father's DNA, a charge John Henry denied. Williams' attorney called the DNA allegations an "absurd proposition" and accused Johnson of trying to grab headlines. Alcor denied the allegations of missing DNA and explained that microscopic cracking can result as part of the process of freezing the head, damage which is less than previous methods using glycerol during cryopreservation; Alcor believes that technology sufficient to revive its patients would also be able to repair the microscopic fractures, which are monitored using a tiny microphone. In the wake of the Sports Illustrated story, Johnson began a paid-membership website where he displayed what he said were photographs of Williams.
John Henry Williams subsequently died of leukemia, and his remains are also stored at Alcor. After John Henry's death, Ferrell again filed a lawsuit, but representatives of Williams' estate repeated that he wished to be at Alcor.
In addition to his Williams allegations, Johnson handed over to the police a taped conversation in which he claims Alcor facilities engineer Hugh Hixon stated that an Alcor employee deliberately hastened the imminent 1992 death of a terminally ill AIDS patient, with an injection of Metubine, a paralytic drug. The nurse who pronounced the 1992 death has denied Johnson's claim that there was any hastening of death. The nurse's claim that the patient died in his bedroom contradicts Alcor's own 1992 case report, in which they state the patient died approximately 30 minutes after they transported him to a makeshift operating room, in a garage. In 2009, Carlos Mondragon, (Alcor's CEO at the time of the incident), told ABC News he had been made aware of the allegations, at the time of the case, and as a result, had severed Alcor's ties with the employee who allegedly hastened the patient's death. Mr. Mondragon failed to inform ABC News that the same person later performed Alcor's surgical procedures, including a decapitation, on Ted Williams.
- Membership and Applicant Growth
- Alcor Cases
- Quigley, Christine (1998). Modern Mummies: The Preservation of the Human Body in the Twentieth Century. McFarland. p. 143. Template:Citation/identifier.
- Mondragon, Carlos (1990). "A Stunning Legal Victory for Alcor". Cryonics. Alcor Life Extension Foundation. http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/LegalVictory.html. Retrieved 2009-08-23.
- April 26, 1996. Dying to know ASU Cronkite School of Journalism.
- "Alcor IRS letter". IRS. Alcor Life Extension Foundation. 1972. http://www.alcor.org/Library/pdfs/AlcorIRSletter.pdf. Retrieved 2009-08-23.
- Best, Ben (2008). "A History of Cryonics". The Immortalist. Cryonics Institute. http://www.cryonics.org/immortalist/november08/History.pdf. Retrieved 2009-08-24.
- Kunen, James S. (July 17, 1989). "Reruns Will Keep Sitcom Writer Dick Clair on Ice—indefinitely". People Magazine. http://www.people.com/people/archive/article/0,,20120770,00.html. Retrieved 2009-08-24.
- "Alcor: The Origin of Our Name". Alcor Life Extension Foundation. Winter 2000. http://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics2000-4.pdf. Retrieved 2009-08-25.
- 1981. IABS Suspension Coverage Cryonics.
- Mondragon, Carlos (1994). "Defining the Cryonics Institution". Cryonics and Life Extension Conference. Alcor Life Extension Foundation. http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/institution.html. Retrieved 2009-08-23.
- 1992. Unity and Disunity in Cryonics Cryonics.
- "A Brain Is A Terrible Thing To Waste". Mensa International. http://www.cryonicssociety.org/articles_mensajournal.html. Retrieved 2009-08-23.
- Darwin, Mike (September 1988). "Dr. Leary Joins Up...". Alcor Life Extension Foundation. http://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics8809.txt. Retrieved 2009-08-24.
- Mondragon, Carlos. 1990. Alcor Begins Planning a New Facility Cryonics.
- 2007. 7th Alcor Conference Alcor.
- November 8, 2002. Eric Drexler, Michael D. West Among Top Speakers for Alcor Life Extension Foundations 5th Annual Conference. PR Newswire.
- "Ad for 1978 Alcor conference, featuring many speakers now dead". Alcor Life Extension Foundation. Imminst.org forum. 1978. http://www.imminst.org/forum/index.php?showtopic=17388&mode=linear. Retrieved 2009-08-24.
- "New Cryopreservation Technology". Alcor Life Extension Foundation. October 2005. http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/newtechnology.html. Retrieved 2009-08-25.
- "The World's Billionaires: #314 Robert Miller". Forbes. October 2005. http://www.forbes.com/lists/2007/10/07billionaires_Robert-Miller_GMCO.html. Retrieved 2007-03-08.
- Merkle, Ralph C. (2008). "Alcor's Self Perpetuating Board". Alcor Life Extension Foundation. http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/perpetuating.html. Retrieved 2009-08-25.
- "Alcor Scientific Advisory Board". Alcor Life Extension Foundation. http://www.alcor.org/AboutAlcor/meetsciadvboard.html. Retrieved 2009-08-26.
- Wowk, Brian. "Cardiopulmonary Support in Cryonics". Alcor Life Extension Foundation. http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/CardiopulmonarySupport.html. Retrieved 2009-08-25.
- "Cases Without Cardiopulmonary Support". Alcor Life Extension Foundation. http://www.cryonics.com/printable.cgi?fname=Library%2Fhtml%2Fadditionalcasereports.html. Retrieved 2009-08-25.
- Moehringer, J.R. January 22, 2003. Comeback Would Top Them All Los Angeles Times.
- August 23, 2005. The Cold, Hard Facts on Cryonics The Chicago Tribune.
- Jones, Tanya (2008). "Update on Recent Progress". Alcor News blog. Alcor Life Extension Foundation. http://www.alcornews.org/weblog/2008/01/update_on_recent_progress.html#more. Retrieved 2009-08-25.
- Bridge, Steve (1995). "The Neuropreservation Option: Head First into the Future". Cryonics. Alcor Life Extension Foundation. http://www.alcor.org/printable.cgi?fname=Library%2Fhtml%2Fneuropreservationoption.html. Retrieved 2009-08-25.
- Sullivan, Will (2006). "Second place non-fiction: 'Iceman Cometh'". Yale Daily News. http://www.yaledailynews.com/articles/view/17659. Retrieved 2009-08-27.
- Regis, Ed (1991). Great Mambo Chicken And The Transhuman Condition: Science Slightly Over The Edge. Westview Press. p. 103. Template:Citation/identifier.
- Vascellaro, Charlie (2007). "Waiting to Awake". AZ Business (AZ Big Media). http://azbigmedia.com/ab/cover-story-waiting-awake. Retrieved 2009-08-26.
- Best, Ben (2008). "Asset Preservation". The Immortalist (Cryonics Institute). http://www.cryonics.org/immortalist/november08/Assets_Gipson.pdf. Retrieved 2009-08-25.
- Regalado, Antonio (2006). "A Cold Calculus Leads Cryonauts To Put Assets on Ice". The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/public/article_print/SB113780314900652582-3NZCCoZBW7UHDmouEOrkzkalkfY_20060129.html. Retrieved 2009-08-26.
- "Is it possible to place some of my personal effects into storage with Alcor?". Alcor. http://www.alcor.org/FAQs/faq06.html#storage.
- "Alcor FAQs". Alcor. http://www.alcor.org/FAQs/index.html.
- Fryer, Jane (2006). "The Britons dying to get into the human deep freeze". Daily Mail. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-398188/The-Britons-dying-human-deep-freeze.html. Retrieved 2009-08-25.
- D'Bora (2009). "Laughlin Training". Alcor News blog. Alcor Life Extension Foundation. http://www.alcornews.org/weblog/2009/05/laughlin_training.html. Retrieved 2009-08-25.
- Philipkoski, Kristen (2002). "Ray Kurzweil's Plan: Never Die". Wired. Archived from the original on 2013-01-05. https://archive.is/jhPcu. Retrieved 2009-08-26.
- Guynn, Jessica (2002). "Techies go for ice-cold afterlife". Contra Costa Times. http://www.mult-sclerosis.org/news/Aug2002/WaitingForACureWithCryogenics.html. Retrieved 2009-08-26.
- More, Max. "Links". Max More. http://www.maxmore.com/links.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-26.
- Sandomir, Richard (2005-02-13). "Please Don't Call the Customers Dead". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9807E7DD143AF930A25751C0A9639C8B63. Retrieved 2009-08-27.
- Quigley, Christine (1998). Modern Mummies: The Preservation of the Human Body in the Twentieth Century. McFarland. p. 145. Template:Citation/identifier.
- "Splendid Splinter chilling in Scottsdale". Associated Press (Sports Illustrated). 2003. http://www.howstuffworks.com/framed.htm?parent=cryonics.htm&url=http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/baseball/news/2003/08/02/williams_alcor_ap/. Retrieved 2009-08-27.
- Cieply, Michael (1990-09-09). "They Freeze Death if Not Taxes - Cryonics: Freezing bodies for later, uh, reanimation gains popularity. But resurrection is not without complications.". Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/1990-09-09/business/fi-706_1_cryonics-society. Retrieved 2009-08-26.
- Jones, Tanya (2008). "Alcor Cryopreserves 80th Patient". Alcor News (Alcor Life Extension Foundation). http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casesummary2340.html. Retrieved 2009-08-26.
- Bersten, Rosanne (2002). "Australians put hands up for big freeze". Melbourne: The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2002/08/23/1030052975246.html. Retrieved 2009-08-25.
- Template:Cite journal
- Fisher, Michael. 2004. Ex-coroner says errors hurt probe. The Press-Enterprise.
- Perry, R. Michael (2000). Forever for All: Moral Philosophy, Cryonics, and the Scientific Prospects for Immortality. Universal-Publishers. p. 40. Template:Citation/identifier.
- Associated Press. August 2, 2003. Splendid Splinter chilling in Scottsdale. Sports Illustrated/CNN.
- Sandomir, Richard. June 17, 2004. Ted Williams Legal Fight Comes to an End The New York Times.
- Associated Press. July 8, 2002. Dispute over Ted Williams' body divides son, daughter Half brother accused of plan to cryogenically freeze body. The Seattle Times.
- Bertolino, Bill. 2003. Scottsdale company's role in death probed. East Valley Tribune.
- Platt, Charles. August 13, 2003. Renewed Ted Williams Controversy: An Interim Response Alcor News.
- August 13, 2003. The Story of Ted Williams CNN.
- ESPN - Leukemia claims son of Hall of Famer - MLB
- Hennes, Ronald (November 11, 2009). "I WAS THE NURSE/I WAS THERE". Amazon.com. http://www.amazon.com/review/RI93NNZA4OQRG/ref=cm_cr_dp_cmt?ie=UTF8&ASIN=1593155603&nodeID=283155#wasThisHelpful. Retrieved 2009-12-12.